Michio Kaku on Quantum Computing and AI Chat-bots

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Michio Kaku

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Dr. Michio Kaku, PhD, is a professor of theoretical physics, host of the "Science Fantastic" radio program, and author of several books. His latest is "Quantum Supremacy: How the Quantum Computer Revolution Will Change Everything." It is available now.www.mkaku.org

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Now in application of this thing one of the things that we're seeing right now when you were talking about quantum computing back to that, one of the things we're seeing now is chat GPT. chat GPT which is this fascinating AI program that essentially scours the entire internet for answers for things and is so good at it. The answers for things, for just just data, people are getting Diagnosed with certain diseases based on symptoms and blood work and it's a super accurate Legal papers it could fill out legal forms and it's it's wild the capacity You can pass a bar exam that way. Yes, the bar exam can be passed with a chatbot. Yeah, it's like 98% right now Here's the question if quantum computing gets involved in AI What are we looking at? Well, first of all AI is a software program we're talking about homogenizing different kinds of essays on the web splicing them together and then passing it off as your latest creation Basically plagiarism using digital computers. It's a software question However quantum computers is bigger than that Quantum computers is a hardware question where it actually increases your ability To do much more than with an ordinary digital computer. So the two of them the chatbots that are revolution in software and then quantum computers Which are revolution in hardware when they get together watch out so we're talking about an extremely powerful alliance between software and Hardware now also as you know Chatbots will also lie cheats swindle joke and do all sorts of crazy things Yes If you're a high school kid You could write all sorts of science fiction scenarios and some chatbot may grab pieces of that nonsense and Incorporate it into their essay. Oh Interesting so you can't discern what's accurate exactly the whole point. This is the whole ball of wax Chatbots do not know what is correct or incorrect. They just gather information so they could be gamed That's right. All they do is homogenize cut up existing things that sound human put it together And then people say my god that sounds like a human rodent. Of course a human did write it It's not interesting that they could game that also if they wanted to find out what percentage of people believed a certain thing If they had some bad actors some foreign You know governments that decided they were going to spread narratives as widely as possible and chat GBT just gathers up all this information It could give you an incorrect understanding of what's happening in the world that incorrect understanding of politics of Point is that even though there's a good aspect to all these software programs? The downside is that you can fabricate truth because it cannot tell the difference between False and what is false and what is true? That's very interesting You talked to the chat the chatbot and say do you know the difference between correct and incorrect and they say no It's just on the web. They're just instructed to cobble together existing paragraphs splice them together and polish it up and then spit it out, but is it correct? It doesn't care It doesn't know so it is essentially like an amazing resource of information That's that's very flawed that can't discern and can't think I do this. I have this problem all the time I'm a professor and I give assignments to the students sometimes write a term paper So what do they do some of them plagiarize? Oh, how do you catch them? Well, you read the essay and then you read another essay and you say I've heard that before But you see that's what a chatbot is a chatbot is like a teenager that Plagiarizes other people's essays passes it off as their own now. I'm a scientist We'd like to think about things that are creative new Innovative things that will change our perception of the world none of that Absolutely. None of that comes from a chatbot a chatbot simply rearranges Pre-existing essays that's all it does The the thing is though. That's all it does now That's what's interesting. What's interesting is what you're talking about with quantum computing and the insane Computational power right and then apply that to having access to all of the information, right? But there's a good aspect to you know, when I write a book My publisher has a fact checker a fact checker that goes through all the different statements that I make to make sure that they're all correct There is no fact checker for chatbots. Let me repeat that again There is no fact checker for chatbots. That is the whole ball of wax That's the reason why they're so dangerous because they can they don't know these chatbots are machines They don't know what is correct or does incorrect. It's all the same to them That's the danger that they could incorporate teenagers ranting and raving about all sorts of garbage and put that in with articles That sound reasonable That's the problem now, here's what quantum computers come in can win it quantum computers can act as a fact checker You can ask a quantum computer to remove all the garbage remove all the nonsense in these articles and it'll do that So in other words the hardware may be a check on some of the wild statements made by software But the problem with that is who's the arbiter of the information like who decides what what's real and what's not? How does the chatbot decide is a chatbot? Ideologically biased the chatbot doesn't the chat bus simply said that he does. Yeah quantum computing And then it's going to be able to discern what's real and what's not real If they're gradations of what is true like it is partially true or whatever it could give you the Detailed understanding of what it could be misconstrued what is partially correct what is misleading but partially correct You said I'm saying yeah right now the chatbot just splices it together like an editor that's all it is an editor not a fact checker and Spits out cobbled together articles that sound reasonable But there could be dynamite inside some of these articles that were spliced into what was proposed With a quantum computer you can fact-check things and then you can say this is 90% correct This is totally wrong. This is sometimes correct and you get gradations of what is correct and incorrect well, if you can get an objectively accurate fact checker that would be a huge step up from what we have today because a lot of people have very little faith in certain fact checkers and when you find out that they're Ideologically biased or they're governmentally biased and if you could have something that could just tell you if you have you been paying attention to how Twitter is Doing it now where they have community notes. Have you seen this? No, I haven't it's interesting Let's say if someone makes a statement about something controversial climate change whatever and then this controversial statement Gets refuted in the community notes and then people will start commenting and really intelligent very well-read people on specific subjects will chime in with peer-reviewed papers and all these different Statistics and that show and then Twitter will correct it and it'll say Readers have said and then and then put up the relevant information, right? See, that's what chat bots do not do today Yeah, they have no understanding of correct or incorrect false and truth no understanding of that But with hardware coming into the picture, there's more advanced then yeah You're talking about machines that can do that automatically But it's the problem who controls that machine like safe China gets a hold of one of those machines first If they develop a quantum computer first and they start implementing it Well, we have to make sure that our quantum computers can check other people's quantum computers to make sure that they're not fudging the facts Right now remember that if this is not done legally if there are no laws passed in this direction And it's the fact the Wild West then of course the politicians get involved and it becomes a real mess Now we do know that you cannot yell fire in a crowded theater Therefore there are limits to free speech and we get that But how do you make limits on statements that are written on the web that no human can possibly follow right? That's where quantum computers can come in quantum Computers can are powerful enough to survey the entire landscape and give reasonable rebuttals to things that are just outrageous Well more than that it's going to be able to instantaneously Change how we interact with each other in terms of language barriers all these issues that we have currently I'm sure you you're aware of Google had Their earbuds there was a feature where if you say if you went to Spain and didn't speak Spanish You could talk to it and they would talk to it and it would translate back and forth so you could have a real-time conversation I'm not sure how good is it how good is that you? But if there's something like augmented reality and we have something like that you're gonna be able to instantaneously translate what people are saying Yeah, you there'll be no language barriers for people will not will be able to I think that would change Just human perception across the world just the way we view each other It's so easy to think of each other as being different because we speak a different language And we live in a different part of the planet, but that would literally change how we interact with each other Yeah, and just remember that where do correct ideas come from correct ideas come from interaction with incorrect ideas It's the struggle between ideas out of which correct ideas emerge And this does not happen on the internet because of course with chatbots Everything is cobbled together cut splice and simply glued together with scotch tape masquerading as an essay so with fact-checking I think it's going to be different because unless we do fact-checking the politicians will get involved Yes, and this could be a real mess So I would hope that the industry does fact-checking by itself rather than having politicians do it It's such an important point that you said where you said that the bad ideas have to Exist so the good idea is triumph and that that's really an argument against censorship on the internet Which is another problem that people have that especially censorship when it comes to something being ideologically based But when you're you're thinking about quantum computing, I think what I think this is small potatoes, right? I think we're looking at literally being able to change how we interact with the universe but when we were talking on our last podcast about the Proponderance of evidence that there's things that operate inside of our atmosphere that are beyond imagination That are they operate with no visible means of propulsion. They move at insane speeds We don't understand what they are if we think about what quantum computing is going to be capable of that's the kind of stuff We're thinking about right. Yeah, you see quantum computers are the ultimate computers because they're competing on atoms If there are aliens in outer space and I think there are it means that they also have perfected Quantum computers and they can do calculations that are far beyond anything that we can calculate with like for example a wormhole a wormhole in principle is a gateway between two distant points of space and time Which allows you to break the Einstein barrier and go faster than the speed of light, but the calculations are horrendous It may take a quantum computer to sort through what happens when you go through a wormhole And wind up on the other side of the universe and the aliens probably already have done that Yeah, they probably had centuries of experience with quantum computers because that's the ultimate computer you can't compute in anything smaller than an atom and They probably already have used the quantum computers to navigate through wormholes. Let's say hypothetically It's so fascinating when you think of where we were just a few thousand years ago to or a few hundred years ago to where We are now and then you imagine the invention of quantum computing you imagine everything just The whole idea of whatever we think of current computer progression just goes out the window and it's insane calculation capabilities We could be able to do something like that in the future, right? Quantum computers allows us to calculate things that are way beyond our ability to calculate today Like going through a wormhole or warp drive or even the question of multiple universes People ask the question how come quantum computers are so powerful? It's because they compute in in parallel universes This is the multiverse which of course Marvel Comics has discovered and the Oscars have discovered recently But the multiverse idea comes from quantum physics Electrons can be two places at the same time now some people have a hard time getting their head around that but get used to it That's why we have lasers. That's why we have transistors. That's why we have the internet. That's why we have this conversation Because the electrons that are in this microphone dance between universes at the at the atomic level and So we have to get used to the idea that quantum computers introduces a whole new way of looking at reality Now reality is not a Marvel comic But the idea of the multiverse comes from quantum physics and that is electrons can be multiple places at the same timeThe Gerogan experience. Now in application of this thing one of the things that we're seeing right now when you were talking about quantum computing back to that, one of the things we're seeing now is chat GPT. chat GPT which is this fascinating AI program that essentially scours the entire internet for answers for things and is so good at it. The answers for things, for just just data, people are getting Diagnosed with certain diseases based on symptoms and blood work and it's a super accurate Legal papers it could fill out legal forms and it's it's wild the capacity You can pass a bar exam that way. Yes, the bar exam can be passed with a chatbot. Yeah, it's like 98% right now Here's the question if quantum computing gets involved in AI What are we looking at? Well, first of all AI is a software program we're talking about homogenizing different kinds of essays on the web splicing them together and then passing it off as your latest creation Basically plagiarism using digital computers. It's a software question However quantum computers is bigger than that Quantum computers is a hardware question where it actually increases your ability To do much more than with an ordinary digital computer. So the two of them the chatbots that are revolution in software and then quantum computers Which are revolution in hardware when they get together watch out so we're talking about an extremely powerful alliance between software and Hardware now also as you know Chatbots will also lie cheats swindle joke and do all sorts of crazy things Yes If you're a high school kid You could write all sorts of science fiction scenarios and some chatbot may grab pieces of that nonsense and Incorporate it into their essay. Oh Interesting so you can't discern what's accurate exactly the whole point. This is the whole ball of wax Chatbots do not know what is correct or incorrect. They just gather information so they could be gamed That's right. All they do is homogenize cut up existing things that sound human put it together And then people say my god that sounds like a human rodent. Of course a human did write it It's not interesting that they could game that also if they wanted to find out what percentage of people believed a certain thing If they had some bad actors some foreign You know governments that decided they were going to spread narratives as widely as possible and chat GBT just gathers up all this information It could give you an incorrect understanding of what's happening in the world that incorrect understanding of politics of Point is that even though there's a good aspect to all these software programs? The downside is that you can fabricate truth because it cannot tell the difference between False and what is false and what is true? That's very interesting You talked to the chat the chatbot and say do you know the difference between correct and incorrect and they say no It's just on the web. They're just instructed to cobble together existing paragraphs splice them together and polish it up and then spit it out, but is it correct? It doesn't care It doesn't know so it is essentially like an amazing resource of information That's that's very flawed that can't discern and can't think I do this. I have this problem all the time I'm a professor and I give assignments to the students sometimes write a term paper So what do they do some of them plagiarize? Oh, how do you catch them? Well, you read the essay and then you read another essay and you say I've heard that before But you see that's what a chatbot is a chatbot is like a teenager that Plagiarizes other people's essays passes it off as their own now. I'm a scientist We'd like to think about things that are creative new Innovative things that will change our perception of the world none of that Absolutely. None of that comes from a chatbot a chatbot simply rearranges Pre-existing essays that's all it does The the thing is though. That's all it does now That's what's interesting. What's interesting is what you're talking about with quantum computing and the insane Computational power right and then apply that to having access to all of the information, right? But there's a good aspect to you know, when I write a book My publisher has a fact checker a fact checker that goes through all the different statements that I make to make sure that they're all correct There is no fact checker for chatbots. Let me repeat that again There is no fact checker for chatbots. That is the whole ball of wax That's the reason why they're so dangerous because they can they don't know these chatbots are machines They don't know what is correct or does incorrect. It's all the same to them That's the danger that they could incorporate teenagers ranting and raving about all sorts of garbage and put that in with articles That sound reasonable That's the problem now, here's what quantum computers come in can win it quantum computers can act as a fact checker You can ask a quantum computer to remove all the garbage remove all the nonsense in these articles and it'll do that So in other words the hardware may be a check on some of the wild statements made by software But the problem with that is who's the arbiter of the information like who decides what what's real and what's not? How does the chatbot decide is a chatbot? Ideologically biased the chatbot doesn't the chat bus simply said that he does. Yeah quantum computing And then it's going to be able to discern what's real and what's not real If they're gradations of what is true like it is partially true or whatever it could give you the Detailed understanding of what it could be misconstrued what is partially correct what is misleading but partially correct You said I'm saying yeah right now the chatbot just splices it together like an editor that's all it is an editor not a fact checker and Spits out cobbled together articles that sound reasonable But there could be dynamite inside some of these articles that were spliced into what was proposed With a quantum computer you can fact-check things and then you can say this is 90% correct This is totally wrong. This is sometimes correct and you get gradations of what is correct and incorrect well, if you can get an objectively accurate fact checker that would be a huge step up from what we have today because a lot of people have very little faith in certain fact checkers and when you find out that they're Ideologically biased or they're governmentally biased and if you could have something that could just tell you if you have you been paying attention to how Twitter is Doing it now where they have community notes. Have you seen this? No, I haven't it's interesting Let's say if someone makes a statement about something controversial climate change whatever and then this controversial statement Gets refuted in the community notes and then people will start commenting and really intelligent very well-read people on specific subjects will chime in with peer-reviewed papers and all these different Statistics and that show and then Twitter will correct it and it'll say Readers have said and then and then put up the relevant information, right? See, that's what chat bots do not do today Yeah, they have no understanding of correct or incorrect false and truth no understanding of that But with hardware coming into the picture, there's more advanced then yeah You're talking about machines that can do that automatically But it's the problem who controls that machine like safe China gets a hold of one of those machines first If they develop a quantum computer first and they start implementing it Well, we have to make sure that our quantum computers can check other people's quantum computers to make sure that they're not fudging the facts Right now remember that if this is not done legally if there are no laws passed in this direction And it's the fact the Wild West then of course the politicians get involved and it becomes a real mess Now we do know that you cannot yell fire in a crowded theater Therefore there are limits to free speech and we get that But how do you make limits on statements that are written on the web that no human can possibly follow right? That's where quantum computers can come in quantum Computers can are powerful enough to survey the entire landscape and give reasonable rebuttals to things that are just outrageous Well more than that it's going to be able to instantaneously Change how we interact with each other in terms of language barriers all these issues that we have currently I'm sure you you're aware of Google had Their earbuds there was a feature where if you say if you went to Spain and didn't speak Spanish You could talk to it and they would talk to it and it would translate back and forth so you could have a real-time conversation I'm not sure how good is it how good is that you? But if there's something like augmented reality and we have something like that you're gonna be able to instantaneously translate what people are saying Yeah, you there'll be no language barriers for people will not will be able to I think that would change Just human perception across the world just the way we view each other It's so easy to think of each other as being different because we speak a different language And we live in a different part of the planet, but that would literally change how we interact with each other Yeah, and just remember that where do correct ideas come from correct ideas come from interaction with incorrect ideas It's the struggle between ideas out of which correct ideas emerge And this does not happen on the internet because of course with chatbots Everything is cobbled together cut splice and simply glued together with scotch tape masquerading as an essay so with fact-checking I think it's going to be different because unless we do fact-checking the politicians will get involved Yes, and this could be a real mess So I would hope that the industry does fact-checking by itself rather than having politicians do it It's such an important point that you said where you said that the bad ideas have to Exist so the good idea is triumph and that that's really an argument against censorship on the internet Which is another problem that people have that especially censorship when it comes to something being ideologically based But when you're you're thinking about quantum computing, I think what I think this is small potatoes, right? I think we're looking at literally being able to change how we interact with the universe but when we were talking on our last podcast about the Proponderance of evidence that there's things that operate inside of our atmosphere that are beyond imagination That are they operate with no visible means of propulsion. They move at insane speeds We don't understand what they are if we think about what quantum computing is going to be capable of that's the kind of stuff We're thinking about right. Yeah, you see quantum computers are the ultimate computers because they're competing on atoms If there are aliens in outer space and I think there are it means that they also have perfected Quantum computers and they can do calculations that are far beyond anything that we can calculate with like for example a wormhole a wormhole in principle is a gateway between two distant points of space and time Which allows you to break the Einstein barrier and go faster than the speed of light, but the calculations are horrendous It may take a quantum computer to sort through what happens when you go through a wormhole And wind up on the other side of the universe and the aliens probably already have done that Yeah, they probably had centuries of experience with quantum computers because that's the ultimate computer you can't compute in anything smaller than an atom and They probably already have used the quantum computers to navigate through wormholes. Let's say hypothetically It's so fascinating when you think of where we were just a few thousand years ago to or a few hundred years ago to where We are now and then you imagine the invention of quantum computing you imagine everything just The whole idea of whatever we think of current computer progression just goes out the window and it's insane calculation capabilities We could be able to do something like that in the future, right? Quantum computers allows us to calculate things that are way beyond our ability to calculate today Like going through a wormhole or warp drive or even the question of multiple universes People ask the question how come quantum computers are so powerful? It's because they compute in in parallel universes This is the multiverse which of course Marvel Comics has discovered and the Oscars have discovered recently But the multiverse idea comes from quantum physics Electrons can be two places at the same time now some people have a hard time getting their head around that but get used to it That's why we have lasers. That's why we have transistors. That's why we have the internet. That's why we have this conversation Because the electrons that are in this microphone dance between universes at the at the atomic level and So we have to get used to the idea that quantum computers introduces a whole new way of looking at reality Now reality is not a Marvel comic But the idea of the multiverse comes from quantum physics and that is electrons can be multiple places at the same time